Monday, August 24, 2020

Do You Agree or Disagree with the Following Statement

To start with, PCs contain office programming just as recreational capacities. On the off chance that one isn't self-taught, it is simple for them to forget about time when they utilize the web at home. The home condition is significantly helpful for relaxing on a couch watching T. V or cooking or bringing companions over to play computer games. You don't feel significant and co-occupants don't pay attention to you. How accomplish you work and not go-to work? Take my companion Emily for instance, she is a feature writer. When she worked at a paper office.Chatting on line, watching motion pictures or perusing immaterial sites are not permitted during work time, so she needs to simply concentrate on her work. In any case, this year she began to work at home. She composes articles at home and sends them to editors by messages. I figured this would be extraordinary as she doesn’t need to invest energy in drive. Nonetheless, she disclosed to me that at home she can’t help si gning on msn and talking with individuals or perusing immaterial sites, once in a while she even plays PC games.As an outcome, she bit by bit turned into a slowpoke. Nowadays she regularly begins to complete her errands close to cutoff times. Second, working at home makes individuals segregated. Working in the workplace furnishes a chance to coexist with associates. What's more, at times associates can be old buddies, which brings parts fun. Social connection appears as gathering vitality in the working environment. A great many people are outgoing individuals and consequently need others around to look after inspiration. My sister, Dorinda, is a self observer and almost has no words.When a few missteps occurs in her work and she is critized by chief, she is discouraged to the point that has no vitality and persistance to proceed onward. In any case, her partners discover she is strange and come to ask the explanation. At that point they support Dorinda and help her check, under all the colleagues’ help, she improves and is typically prasied by chief. Along these lines, working with partners improves scholastically than their segregated partners. At long last, however utilizing the PC and the phone at home can help finish some work, it diminished eye to eye connection with different representatives or supervisors.Sometimes, a mind boggling issue can’t be unraveled uniquely by words effectively, it needs conversations or even contentions that make inventive thoughts and key choices. Take me for example, on the off chance that I have a few inquiries in my schoolwork, I perfer asking instructors after class rahter than simply call him. Through up close and personal communication, I can see the technique and the methods of understanding the inquiry and find where my missteps are. Also, supervisor are more facinated with the customary method of overseeing. He eeds to ensure everybody is concertrated on working. So as to make the interchanges progressi vely powerful, working at office and up close and personal association is essential. I need to concede that cutting edge innovation like PC and phone brings comfort to people’s life. They empower individuals to work at home and make plans all the more unreservedly. Be that as it may, I despite everything accept that the imperfections of working at home exceed its benefits since there is no assurance that working at home upgrade capability. Do You Agree or Disagree with the Following Statement? Do you concur or differ with the accompanying articulation? Playing PC games shows us life. Utilize explicit reasons and guides to help your answer With times changing, there are some recently discharged PC games planned for individuals to unwind as well as permits them to live in a virtual world. Some said that these games can open individuals to most recent developments, improve their responses, and do what they are taboo to do in reality. Nonetheless, I differ that playing PC games shows us life. As I would see it, this stunning world doesn’t show us how to associate with others vis-à-vis, however it burns through our important time. What’s more, those games will bring some life issues. As a matter of first importance, game players are pulled in to these new and new games while playing PC games. This makes them be dependent on the fantasized, unbelievable world accidentally. A large portion of the PC games these days are included in line work so they can speak with game accomplices, and offer the experience of what they played in games with different players. For their entire life is impacted by game scenes and energizing enhanced visualizations, which results in their frowziness and inevitably, they are going towards enslavement. In the interim, with inaccurate contemplations upsetting their brains, they step by step believe that they are allowed to do anything as what the jobs do in games. In that virtual world, game players come who from better places structure a group, and build up an endurance model by murdering beasts and adversaries with an avenging mindfulness. Be that as it may, they would endeavor to duplicate the experience from games to this present reality participating in threats so as to tackle life issues. This inspires the circumstance of forceful and illicit conduct when they experience the ill effects of the dissatisfactions, for example, being accused by guardians, bombing tests, having terrible individual connections. At last, playing PC games for extended periods of time doesn't show players how to improve their living characteristics, rather, it declines their wellbeing condition. During the time of playing, they would want to spare time by eating inexpensive food as opposed to decision distinctive variety of food frequently bringing about heftiness. Additionally, when they begin to play the games, scarcely would they be able to stop to rest for some time. This generally causes high weight. What’s more terrible, they are eager to sit up the entire night and keep playing PC games when they should take rest. Accordingly, it might trigger strokes. Despite the fact that these PC games do truly change the type of excitements and show the developments of innovation, individuals as of now don't understand that it would get disadvantageous to them when they are over-appreciating than fit unwinding. In this way, playing PC games doesn't assist individuals with finding out about existence yet lead individuals to overlook the time passing, disregard the relational connections they have, significantly more harm their wellbeing.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

STAR INVESTIGATION :: essays research papers

Organization: Internet Journalism and the Starr Investigation      The Starr Investigation was a significant time in news coverage, since it constrained the conventional media to redesign their methods of introducing news online so as to satisfy the requirements and needs of Internet clients. New innovation was utilized for this situation to break the updates on the embarrassment, to voice new claims, and to discharge completely Starr’s last report of the examination. This case gave the primary itemized take a gander at the distinctions in character between the Internet and customary communicate and print media. The moral issues in Internet Journalism and the Starr Investigation: 1. Was this a genuine report? 2. Exceptional journalistic rivalry? â€Å"Journalists of all stripes were pursuing the story.† 3. Believability of the paper? Revealing Facts that at long last refuted. Editors dubious of the story’s exactness? The unwavering quality of the data? 4. The Value of Verification to get the story right? 5. Unknown Sourcing/Unidentified Sources - â€Å"Journalists mixed to affirm the charges, yet regularly wound up running them with just mysterious sourcing.† 6. Speed, sensation and guess over precision? CNN's Scott Woelfel says he detected in the early going that, "there was a disposition of, 'I don't have the foggiest idea whether we could place this in the paper, yet we could put it on the Web site'." 7.News Leakage? Certain sources in the autonomous counsel’s office were utilizing the press, specifically spilling data to increase strategic bit of leeway with hesitant observers like Lewinsky. McManus reviews. â€Å"So there was unmistakably a great deal of leakage.† 8. The breaking of the story. Matt Drudge breaking the story through his online bulletin? - Wire administrations sent the story around the world. Link systems, radio shows, and neighborhood TV broadcasts drove with the report. Larry King interfered with his program to peruse the story live. 9. The story was touchy to such an extent that Bill Clinton’s lawyer called Nightline and DENIED the story broadcasting in real time. 10. Insecure SOURCING? Reports were based around temperamental sourcing. - The Dallas Morning News and the Wall Street Journal announced that the president and the assistant had been seen together in a bargaining circumstance. - Starr’s staff part got back to the source to take the case since it was FALSE. - Langer told the workers that the News had accidentally depended on just one source to distribute its unique story. 11. Timing and open intrigue 12. Abusing the paper’s two-source standard. 13. Miscommunication - Senior editors erroneously accepted that a subsequent source existed on account of a â€Å"miscommunication† among Dallas and the Washington agency.

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

How Bad Credit Can Affect Your Dating Life

How Bad Credit Can Affect Your Dating Life How Bad Credit Can Affect Your Dating Life How Bad Credit Can Affect Your Dating LifeThere are lots of things that people look for in a potential partner, and if you think debt isnt one of those factorsâ€"youre wrong.There are lots of ways that you can negatively affect your dating life. Poor hygiene for one, or an insistence on recapping the entirety of Babylon 5 during your first dates. (That’s fifth date material at the earliest.)And the same goes for your financial life: There are lots of ways to screw it up. You could rack up excessive credit card debt, fail to pay your bills on time, and forego savings, leaving you reliant on short-term bad credit loans (like payday loans and cash advances) when things get tough.And as it turns out, screwing up your financial life and screwing up your dating life could be pretty closely connected: The kinds of behaviors that lower your credit score can also lower your romantic Q score.Payday loans are a real mood killer.A recent report from Nitro Knowledge reveals that most people val ue financial intelligence and responsibility in a potential partner and find debt to be a deterrent from entering into a relationship.When asked to rank which types of debt were most concerning, payday loans were ranked the least acceptable form of debt on average.  That’s likely because taking out a payday loan is one of the riskiest options for borrowing money, indicating a lack of financial responsibility.With exorbitantly high interest rates and short terms, these no credit check loans can easily trap borrowers in a cycle of debt. While they might seem like an easy way to get out of debt fast, one study found that over 80 percent of payday loan borrowers didn’t have enough money to make their payments.Most people are aware that payday loan debt is a bad sign and are hesitant to inform their partners that they have outstanding payday loans.Payday loans, in particular, were a notable concern among respondents, reads the report. 55 percent were worried about revealing this typ e of debt to their significant other, an unease that may be explained by another 62 percent who felt they were judged by a partner for having that particular kind of debt.The 12 million Americans who use payday loans each year are likely to experience dating stress in addition to the financial burden of a payday loan, the report suggests.Credit card debt isnt attractive either.  Those burdened with credit card debt might also find their finances to be a deal-breaker in a relationship.45 percent of survey respondents said they’d stay away from dating anyone who only makes minimum credit card payments each month. And credit card debt exceeding 15 percent of a person’s salary was considered unacceptable to survey respondents.Other types of debt were considered more acceptable in romantic relationships, and at the top of the list was student loan debt. Given that more than 44 million borrowers have outstanding student loan debt, it may not come as a surprise to find out your signifi cant other borrowed money for education.This type of debt also indicates a person’s dedication to educational and career goals, which is likely why it is perceived as acceptable. Mortgage and auto debt came next on the list of most acceptable forms of debt in a romantic relationship.Being overly stingy isnt the answer.Overall, 70 percent of women and 61 percent of men said they would avoid dating someone who spent irresponsibly.But survey respondents did indicate that romantic partners can be too frugalâ€"49 percent of women and 28 percent of men said they wouldn’t likely date someone who scrimped and saved unnecessarily. The data highlight the importance of determining financial compatibility with a potential partner.Talking about money on a first date might be awkward, and that’s likely why 84 percent of respondents said they would wait to discuss personal finance until they were at least dating someone consistently.But avoiding the topic altogether puts undue stress on a re lationship. If you can’t avoid debt altogether, make it a priority to be upfront and honest with your partner about your financial status.How can you improve your financial behavior?A good credit score isn’t everything in life. But when it comes to improving your financial outlook, the sorts of behaviors that lead to good credit are a flat-out great place to start.First, make sure you pay your bills on time. All of them. Your payment history makes up 35 percent of your score, more than any other single factor. If necessary, talk to your creditors about changing your due dates to make sure all your bills don’t come at once, straining your budget.Next, pay down your excess debt, beginning with high-interest consumer debt from credit cards and personal loans. The Debt Snowball and Debt Avalanche methods are two fantastic strategies for paying off debt. Your amounts owed makes up 30 percent of your overall credit score.Once your outstanding credit card balances dip below 30 percen t of your total credit limits across all your cards, you should see improvement in your score. Moving forward, try to keep your credit utilization ration below 30 percent at all times.Don’t forget about savings!And while your credit score doesn’t take savings into account, you should also build up an emergency fund. This fund should be kept in cash or in an easily accessible savings account. Either way, the point is that these funds are easily accessible when a surprise bill or financial shortfall strikes.Having a great credit score is great! It lets you borrow better loans at lower rates and forego expensive payday and title loans. But the best way to handle a financial emergency is to already have the necessary funds at your disposal. Even the most reasonable installment loans can’t hold a candle to a well-stocked emergency fund.If this task sounds daunting, don’t worry. Start with a goal of saving $1,000 and go from there. Not only will this save you from taking out an e xpensive online loan when things get tough, but it could also end up being the difference in your romantic life!To learn more about navigating money and relationships, check out  these other posts and articles from OppLoans:12 Tips for Talking About Money With Your Spouse or PartnerShould Income Matter When Choosing a Partner?How to Navigate the Financial Side of DatingShould You and Your Spouse Keep Your Finances Separate?Do you have a personal finance question youd like us to answer? Let us know! You can find us  on  Facebook  and  Twitter.  |Instagram

Friday, May 22, 2020

Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Public Secondary...

Background of the study Teachers play a very crucial role in achieving the objectives of Philippines’ vision 2020. Disgruntled teachers who are not satisfied with their job could not be committed and productive and would not be performing at the best of their capabilities. Teaching profession is facing problems related to teachers’ job satisfaction. The general perception is that teachers in the government school are dissatisfied with their profession. They are said to be dissatisfied with teaching in the government schools. If the claim is true that the government school teachers are dissatisfied, what then is this dissatisfaction? In what aspects are they satisfied? Therefore, it is necessary to probe into this matter through a†¦show more content†¦Job Satisfaction can be applicable more to parts of an individuals job. If each person is highly satisfied with his job then only it will be considered as group job satisfaction. Generally job satisfaction is related with number of employees variables such as turnover, absence, age, occupation and size of the organization in which he works. The degree of satisfaction of job is largely depends on satisfaction of employee variables. According to Garton (1976), employees satisfaction and morale are attitudinal variables that reflect positive or negative feelings about particular persons or situations, satisfaction when applied to work context of teaching seems to refer to the extent to which a teacher can meet individual, personal and professional needs as an employees (Strauss, 1974). Herberg (1959) proposed the theories on job satisfaction. Herbergs motivation hygiene theory assumes that two variables determine a person satisfaction. (1) Internal factors like achievement, recognition etc., and (2) external factors such as salary and interpersonal relation. In the light of the above the theoretical framework of teacher job satisfaction may be considered as one of the important factors, which can enhance teaching competency. Conceptual Model The factors found in the studies were organized into 10 major areas that became the domains are: policies and administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonalShow MoreRelatedFactors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Public Secondary School Teachers in the Philippines917 Words   |  4 PagesBackground of the study Teachers play a very crucial role in achieving the objectives of Philippines’ vision 2020. Disgruntled teachers who are not satisfied with their job could not be committed and productive and would not be performing at the best of their capabilities. Teaching profession is facing problems related to teachers’ job satisfaction. The general perception is that teachers in the government school are dissatisfied with their profession. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discovery of gold in America Free Essays

string(51) " Practical Plan for Building the Pacific Railroad\." The discovery of gold in California sparked a massive emigration across the continent to the Pacific coast by Americans searching for wealth. This massive migration of people brought Jefferson’s dream of a continental American empire to reality, and began to establish the United States as the dominant country in North America. This massive migration also prompted the need to bridge the nation for the purpose of making the trip from one coast to another easier. We will write a custom essay sample on Discovery of gold in America or any similar topic only for you Order Now This resulting need to bridge the nation might be the greatest contribution of the gold rush to the history of the United States. On January 24th, 1848, James Marshall discovered what he believed to be Gold dust in the bed of a creek right outside his mill. He brought this sample of the shiny material up to Ft. Sutter in Sacramento, where it was deemed indeed to be gold, and thus the migration of massive amounts of people we call the gold rush began. In two years after the discovery of gold, the population of California was 90. 000 people. At the time of the discovery California was relatively uninhabited by Americans. The United States had finally realized its dream of a country reaching from sea to shining sea, but now that the lands were there, the United States had to figure out how to get its people to settle these lands so they would actually be worth having. It is great for a country to have a lot of land, but if they remain uninhabited and underdeveloped then the land really isn’t worth much. The â€Å"gold rush† consisted of many prospectors seeking to find their fortunes in the mines of California. The emigration of so many Americans to the very western boundary of the country was exactly what the Government needed for the lands it just purchased to be seen as a wise investment. In the two years since the discovery of gold the population of California ballooned to 90 thousand people, most of which were prospectors, and others trying to get rich quick off the discovery of gold. By 1854, the population reached an even more impressive 300 thousand people. Many people moved out west to escape the cities of the east and set off on their own, be free. The migration into these uninhabited lands increased the need for transportation like roads, railroads, and canals as well as the opportunities for work and another incentive for people to move out of the cities where there was a large incidence of unemployment. With the discovery of gold and the massive migration of emigrants westward, came the need to be able to more quickly traverse the continent for both communication, and transportation. The answer to this need was the transcontinental railroad. By the middle of the 1850’s, the need for a transcontinental railroad was universally accepted and acknowledged. Before now, the best way to get from the east coast to the west coast was through the Isthmus of Panama. Between 1848 and 1869, the completion of this railroad, 375 thousand people crossed Panama on their way to California and the gold, and another 225 thousand crossed the isthmus in the other direction. Along with this massive movement of people came great wealth crossing the isthmus, creating even more of a call for the development and creation of a railroad. This crossing of Panama was very hazardous to the health of the people who crossed it. Cholera, among other deadly diseases was very prevalent among the travelers and often took many lives. The increased traffic going to the west coast along with the hazardous conditions of the next best available routes led to the inception of the idea of building a transcontinental railroad. By 1850 there were 9,021 miles of functioning track in the United States, but nothing that connected the east coast and the west coast. During the 1850’s, an average of 2,160 miles of new track was laid every year. With the increase in the formation of functioning track throughout the 1850’s, the development of locomotives that are more powerful and more stable cars permitted engineering feats that seemed impossible a decade earlier. Railroad fever clearly had the nation in its grips and it was just a matter of time before a railroad that crossed the continent would be built. A New York businessman, Asa Whitney, was the first to propose the idea of a transcontinental railroad in 1845. He proposed a route along the northern border we share with Canada. Before the gold rush, he was largely ignored, but afterwards he was taken seriously, and by 1853 it was realized that one was needed and that huge government subsidies would be needed to build it. Upon this realization of the need for a transcontinental railroad came the realization that whichever eastern city was the head of the railroad would become immensely wealthier, and so begun a major struggle between the cities of the east to obtain the rights to be the eastern hub. The amendment to the Army appropriations act allowed a quarter of a million dollars for the railroad to be completed in ten months, and listed five possible routes that it could take. The Northern Route, from St. Paul to Seattle, The council Bluffs to San Francisco route, the Central route, between the 38th and 39th parallels from the arkensas river to San Francisco, The route from Fort Smith along the Arkansas River to Los Angelos, and the southern route from fulton on the red River to san Diego. Diferent people would benefit from each of these routes and there was much fighting over whivh would be the ultimate route. Once the south cecedded from the union the southern route was no longer considered as an option. An engineer named Theodore Judah went out and surveyed his own route of crossing the nation, and in 1857, he published hi Practical Plan for Building the Pacific Railroad. You read "Discovery of gold in America" in category "Essay examples" He went on to send a copy to the president and every member of congress, and billed it as the first genuinely â€Å"practical plan† for traversing the continent. The California state legislature adopted a memorial on the benefits of a transcontinental railroad and offered it to Judah to personally deliver to congress. While he was selling the importance of a transcontinental railroad to Congress, he was also making plans in California to take advantage of any decision Congress makes to accept his crazy idea. He went around the state trying to convince people to by stock in his railroad company, The Central Pacific, as he was sure that Congress would pass the Curtis Act that mandated the formation of two railroads competing with each other from either end of the route and eventually meeting in the middle. He finally sold his theory to four men, the â€Å"Big Four† as they would become known that railroads to the mining towns of California from the east coast was a money maker, and that if they would buy stock in his railroad company they would be able to reap the profits. The big four, or Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, and Charles Crocker, decided to buy into Judah’s idea. Them, along with Judah, and a Nevada City mineowner named Charles Marsh decided to divide equally among themselves the cost of a full-scale survey of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, as well as buy enough stock in the company to allow its permit incorporation. This group of visionaries started what became known as the Central Pacific Railroad Co. , which would eventually become the railroad company that built the transcontinental railroad from the west east. Due to his efforts, Judah convinced Congress to pass the Pacific Railroad Act on June 20th 1862, calling for the creation of two competing railroad companies to start at opposite ends of the route and meet in the middle. The two companies created were the Central Pacific Railroad Co. , and the Union Pacific Railroad Co. Since the Central Pacific Railroad Co. was already a privately owned company it wasn’t as heavily regulated as the Union Pacific Railroad Co. was, which was a government formed company whose specific purpose was to build the eastern leg of the railroad. The accepted route of the railroad was from Omaha, Nebraska in the East, to the Bay area in the west. The federal government granted the two companies aid in the way of United States 6% bonds that had to be paid back with interest beginning 30 years after the completion of the railroad. Yet, due to the Civil War that was raging at this time, the bonds held little confidence in the market and thus never sold at par, thus depreciating the aid from the very beginning. The government also awarded the companies a right-of-way extending two hundred feet on either side of the tracks, and five alternate square miles of public land on either side of the line, or 6,400 acres per mile of track. Both Companies were also to give priority to the transportation of government mails, troops, and supplies on the line. The Union pacific was obligated to build a hundred miles in the first 2 years and another hundred miles each succeeding year thereafter. The Central Pacific, due to the mountainous terrain was only obligated to build half as much as the Union Pacific over the same prescribed amount of time. The act also specified that the two companies would be confiscated if the railroad were not completed by July 1, 1874. The construction of the railroad and the subsequent telegraph line that went up along side it, cost the government nothing as it was only loaning its credit and not its money. The two companies broke ground in 1803, the Union Pacific working westward from Omaha, Nebraska, and the Central Pacific from Sacramento California. The building of the track proved to be extremely difficult and arduous and provided much headache for everyone involved. The Central Pacific ran the laying of the track much like a military operation, as it was extremely organized. Due to the Civil War and the mines of the west, there was a huge labor shortage in the country. To accommodate this they had to hire many immigrant workers, especially Chinese immigrants, to lay the track. Getting supplies to the Central pacific also proved to be a very difficult task, as they had to be shipped from the east to San Francisco, and then hurried into the mountains, which wasn’t an easy journey. This process was very time consuming and delayed much building of the track. The company was very efficient in the beginning, making extraordinary progress through the flatlands, but upon reaching the mountains ran into most of the hardships in the building. The mountains proved to be unforgiving in the companies efforts to bridge the nation. Cold winters with extraordinary snows slowed the construction almost to a standstill several times. Many workers died of the extreme conditions of the mountains, making progress slower still. The mountains also provided the arena for some of the most amazing feats of engineering. From blowing tunnels through the mountain, or creating a trestle over a gorge the engineering advances made in during this endeavor have lasted until now and made the building of other railroads possible. In the first three years of building, the company only laid 40 miles of track, well behind the pace mandated by the railroad act. Over the same time, the Union Pacific wasn’t doing much better as it was also only able to lay 40 miles of track itself. While the terrain wasn’t as rough as that of the west, the same problems of management and labor prevailed in the east also. It wasn’t until two brothers took over the actual building of the track and thusly invented what we today would consider modern management techniques. They led by example and do anything they asked of their workers. They did much of the labor themselves and were always the ones in the front of construction. The Union Pacific also had cars carrying anything, and everything the workers could need, it was considered a town on wheels, and consisted of such things as a sleeping quarters, and cars that served meals. The workers slept, ate, and lived on these trains, as they worked a full 12 hours a day. All the supplies for the endeavor were carried on this â€Å"city on wheels,† and made the construction that much more efficient. The construction process for both companies was very costly in terms of human life. Many accidents occurred, and the threat from the Indians was always a constant fear of the workers. By the end of 1867, the Union Pacific had laid 300 miles of track, while the Central had laid less than 80 miles. By the spring of 1869 the two railroads were racing towards each other and they eventually began to build track side by side one another going in opposite directions. It was then that they realized the dream had been accomplished and that they had to be joined. The designated meeting place of the two railroads was determined to be Promontory Point, Utah. On My 10, 1869, two trains converged on Promontory Point, Stamford on a train called Jupiter from the west and Durant on a run of the mill train labeled Engine 119 from the east. The heads of the two companies drove in 4 spikes into the final set of rails, two gold, one silver, and one that was a mixture between gold, silver, and iron. The work was completed in six years, a whole four years of schedule resulting in a reward of 21 million acres. The completion of the railroad was the final act in creating this great nation of ours. Many people went west 1849 looking for a quick and easy way to obtain a great amount of wealth. Many failed and never realized their dream, but because of their migration, the nation realized the need to bridge the nation and the country as a whole became wealthier. The constructing of the railroad was probably the single greatest achievement of the mid 1800’s, and the most significant thing to come out of the gold rush. Because of the railroad the nations interior began to open up to settlement and communications between the two coasts became easier. How to cite Discovery of gold in America, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Cold War Essays - Soviet UnionUnited States Relations

The Cold War Introduction When World War II in Europe finally came to an end on May 7, 1945, a new war was just beginning. The Cold War: denoting the open yet restricted rivalry that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, a war fought on political, economic, and propaganda fronts, with limited recourse to weapons, largely because of fear of a nuclear holocaust.1 This term, The Cold War, was first used by presidential advisor Bernard Baruch during a congressional debate in 1947. Intelligence operations dominating this war have been conducted by the Soviet State Security Service (KGB) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), representing the two power blocs, East and West respectively, that arose from the aftermath of World War II. Both have conducted a variety of operations from large scale military intervention and subversion to covert spying and surveillance missions. They have known success and failure. The Bay of Pigs debacle was soon followed by Kennedy's ft handling of the Cuban missile crisis. The decisions he made were helped immeasurably by intelligence gathered from reconnaissance photos of the high altitude plane U-2. In understanding these agencies today I will show you how these agencies came about, discuss past and present operations, and talk about some of their tools of the trade. Origin of the CIA and KGB The CIA was a direct result of American intelligence operations during World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt recognized the need to coordinate intelligence to protect the interests of the United States. In 1941, he appointed William J. Donovan to the head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) with headquarters in London. Four departments made up the OSS: Support, Secretariat, Planning, and Overseas Missions. Each of these departments directed an array of sections known as 'operation groups'. This organization had fallen into the disfavor of many involved in the federal administration at this time. This included the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Edgar Hoover, who did not like competition from a rival intelligence organization. With the death of Roosevelt in April of 1945, the OSS was disbanded under Truman and departments were either relocated or completely dissolved. Soviet intelligence began with the formation of the Cheka, secret police, under Feliks Dzerzhinsky at the time of the revolution. By 1946, this agency had evolved into the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), and the Ministry of State Security (MGB) both ruled by Lavrenti Beria. This man was undoubtedly the most powerful man in the Soviet Union with a vast empire of prison camps, and informants to crush any traces of dissent. Of considerable importance to Beria was the race for the atomic bomb. The Soviet Union and the United States both plundered the German V-2 rocket sites for materials and personnel. In 1946 the MVD was responsible for the rounding up of 6000 scientists from the Soviet zone of Germany and taking them and their dependents to the Soviet Union.2 The political conflicts of the 1930's and World War II left many educated people with the impression that only communism could combat economic depression and fascism. It was easy for Soviet agents to recruit men who would later rise to positions of power with access to sensitive information. 'Atom spies' were well positioned to keep the Soviets informed of every American development on the bomb. Of considerable importance was a man by the name of Klaus Fuchs, a German communist who fled Hitler's purge and whose ability as a nuclear physicist earned him a place on the Manhattan Project. Fuchs passed information to the Soviets beginning in 1941, and was not arrested until 1950. Also passing secrets to the Soviets were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, executed in the United States in 1953. The latter two were probably among the first who believed in nuclear deterrence, whereby neither country would use nuclear weapons because the other would use his in response, therefore there would be no ssible winner. It is generally believed that with such scientists as Andrei Sakharov, the Soviets were capable of working it out for themselves without the help of intelligence. (better transition) The National Security Act of 1947 gave birth to the CIA, and in 1949 the CIA Act was formally passed. "The act exempted the CIA from all Federal laws that required the disclosure of 'functions, names, official titles, and salaries or number of personnel employed by the agency'. The director was awarded staggering powers, including the right to 'spend money without regard to the provisions of law and regulations relating to the

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The eNotes Blog Your Study SessionMenu

Your Study SessionMenu Can you say #finalsweek ? A few tips from our intern on how to tackle finals and hunger simultaneously. Beware: it may put you  in the mood for the Sixth Sense and drippy, crumbly things Good food can make any situation better. Even if you were experiencing the worst possible thing (i.e. traffic on the 405), think about how much happier you would feel with a bag of your favorite chips or a donut by your side. Road rage: managed. In my many years of falling asleep in lectures and movies and on tables in libraries†¦ I’ve come to realize that food has  another  awesome benefit: as long as you’re eating it, you stay awake. You might fall asleep the second you stop eating (me), but while the munching is happening, it’s physically nearly impossible to be sleeping. As I’m sure you can imagine, by this stage of my life, I am a  professional  snacker and I pride myself in it. I know what kind of snacking is appropriate for various situations and what individuals’ snacking choices and preferences say about them. It’s like I’ve got a sixth  sense.  (I see snacks, people.) Now, there’s a good chance you’re an avid reader. Books are your hobby. They’re the soap opera to the 70 year old woman living inside of you. They’re your  thing. I, on the other hand, would love to be an avid reader, but I fall asleep the second I open a book. Unless I’m snacking. So, after much trial and error, I have finally figured out what kinds of foods you should and shouldn’t eat when reading a book. Even if you don’t need food to stay awake, like I do, some of these snacks might just make your reading experience  that  much better. DRUMROLL, please. DO’S! 1. Foods blended together in liquid form and consumed via straw.  Also known as, your average smoothie. These work for many reasons. For one thing, if positioned properly in front of you, you don’t even need hands to consume it. You could just put it on the table and sip away with your book in front of your cup. It’s just you and the straw. Pretty simple. You also get the added benefit of eating like†¦5 things at once. Which is great if you just really get a kick out of multitasking or if you’re trying to get some veggies or fruits all up in your diet regimen. 2. Pretty much any cold liquid consumed via straw.  I’d recommend chocolate milk. The most important part here is the straw, though. They just makes your life easy. Which is one of the reasons you shouldn’t drink hot drinks, because anyone who has ever drunk hot liquid out of a straw knows the roof-of-your-mouth burn is probably one of the worst, and that it’s inevitable.   No matter how many times you try to cool the drink down, no matter how many times you engage your different ‘testing’ tactics pre-consumption, you will almost always burn yourself when drinking hot liquid through a straw. And that’ll just ruin your reading experience, and probably your whole life. Just please don’t do it. 3. Family-sized bags or boxes of snack foods in original flavors.  These are things like cheez-its, goldfish crackers, pop chips, cereal, you know the drill. They are in the snack aisle for a reason, and it’s because they have been perfected for your snacking pleasure. They literally exist because of your munchies. You should be able to stick your hand blindly into these bags/boxes without becoming nervous or surprised by what comes out of it.   If you can’t, you’re not eating the right snack. The goal is to be able to grab a bunch and shove it directly into your mouth without ever having to avert your glance from your novel. Original flavors mean you’ll have the stamina to keep snacking without wearing out your pallet. And family-sized is crucial because there’s nothing more annoying than wanting to read but running out of snacks to read with. Could you imagine? 4. Peanut butter via spoon.  Yes, it can and should go on a spoon. This applies to Trader Joe’s Cookie Butter, almond butter, and Nutella, as well. You get the drill. 5. Cereal with milk.  This might be a little messy, and yes, it might not be ideal for reading because you have to sort of turn your head to face your cereal bowl every now and then†¦but cereal is worth it. Cereal is always worth it. DON’TS! 1. Warm drinks like coffee or tea.  I already discussed the dangers of attempting to drink hot drinks. But there’s more. Unless paired with other foods, or if you’re part of the 5% of the population that is actually still affected by the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee, these will just make you sleepy. Warm milk, warm water, whatever it is. Parents give little kids these drinks in order to make them fall asleep. And even if they don’t make you sleepy, these are still no-no’s because these things don’t really qualify as foods and therefore they’re inherently just not as enjoyable. Simple as that. You also could potentially and will likely spill on yourself, since you won’t be drinking out of a straw, which will lead to sheer anguish. If you attempt to prevent the spilling of said hot liquid, you’ll just end up having to look away from your novel all the time. That’s not what we want, is it? Goodness, why is it all so complicated? 2. Flavored anything.  How many times have you grabbed a page of a novel and gotten that red hot-cheeto residue all up in there? Or maybe you’re the type who feels the need to lick your fingers after eating something flavored†¦then you’re just going to get your drool all over your novel the next time you page turn. Is that what you want? Is that really what you want? I know these things are delicious, but they’re dangerous. Many of them also require things like water or milk for the washing down of strong flavors. That’s just time wasted, right there. Please, do yourself a favor and avoid the flavor. 3. Small bags of snacks moms put in lunchboxes.  Are you a baby? Tell me, are you a baby? Do you  really  want to read this novel? Because if you DO then you better be in it for the long haul, and the long haul has no room for teeny tiny snack bags. You’re a big kid now. You pack your own lunchbox. 4. Soup.  I mean†¦what are you thinking? That’s just begging for disaster. 5. In general, things that  drip. 6. Things that require two hands to eat.  How do you expect to read with no hands? Are you a magician? If you aren’t which I suspect you aren’t then you should probably you know†¦stop doing that. Reading while devouring a subway sandwich isn’t possible. It just isn’t. At this point you’re just pretending to read while you eat your sandwich, so you might as well just eat your sandwich. 7.  Bags of things with too much variety.  Unless you like all of the items within that variety. For instance, chex mix. Do  you  like those awkward circular pretzels? Bleh. Next. 8.  Foods that are  so  good you can’t help but think about them as you eat.  My god†¦it’s just†¦it’s just so good. 9. Things that crumb.  There are few things as frustrating as getting crumbs stuck in the seam of your novel. Trying to get them out just means you make more and more, progressively smaller crumbs out of the one large one you dropped in the first place. They crumble exponentially until there’s nothing to grab and you’re left feeling sad and defeated. Don’t do that to yourself. It’s masochism. I don’t care how much you love those fancy croissants or slices of toast with jam. It’s just not going to work. 10.  Anything with melted chocolate.  This is the most painful â€Å"don’t.† But we all know†¦chocolate gets everywhere. You eat a cookie that’s fresh out of the oven and somehow five minutes later you have chocolate on your shirt, your fingers, your face- and in this case, your book. No good.   Just no good. Brown smudges on novels just invite inquisitive questions later on. Just try to fight it and stay away. Let the snacking begin!